Correlation does not imply causation A controlled study describes the relationship between given behaviors or environmental conditions and health effects in a laboratory setting in which conditions other than those under study are effectively held constant across groups of participants receiving various levels of the experimental condition s. Since it is considered that the only functional difference between groups is the level of experimental condition s received, researchers can strongly infer cause-and-effect relationships from statistically significant associations between experimental condition s and health consequences.
The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse: Research over many years establishes the negative effects of child sexual abuse are not as pervasive, severe, and long-lasting as generally assumed.
But rather than being seen by victims' advocates as good news, such research results are met with resistance, anger, and personal attacks. This controversy reached its height in when the media, conservative organizations, and the United States Congress condemned a meta-analysis in the Psychological Bulletin by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman.
The American Psychological Association's response to the furor was to distance itself from the article and its authors. This episode demonstrates the difficulty of doing and reporting research where conclusions contradict strongly held beliefs.
Probably no crime outrages society as much as does child sexual abuse. Child molesters are hated and despised.
Most people, even other criminals, hate and despise child molesters and feel they should be locked up for life. Many professionals, as well as the public, believe victims of child sexual abuse suffer grievous harm.
They claim sexual contact between an adult and a child causes depression, anxiety, eating disorders, relationship problems, personality disorders, dissociation, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
They believe these sequelae are common, if not inevitable.
The universal hatred of child molesters, the moral outrage child sexual abuse engenders, and the belief victims are always damaged makes it extremely difficult for researchers to report conclusions that differ from these beliefs or even study adult-child sexual contact.
Those who do are likely to be vilified. Bullough and Bullough observe "It is the ever-present danger of being accused of pedophilia which makes the research so dangerous and debilitating that few individuals are able to risk it" p.
People criticized him for using data from acknowledged pedophiles and even accused him of being a pedophile himself Bullough, His retrospective data tended to show many people who had experienced childhood sex with adults were not seriously harmed by it, another statement that got him in trouble Bullough, John Bancrofta Senior Research Fellow at the Kinsey Institutenotes there has been a long-running campaign to discredit and demonize Kinsey, using him as a scapegoat for many of society's current problems.
In Vern Bullough, a highly-respected sexologist and distinguished professor emeritus at the State University at Buffalo, spoke at a world conference on pornography at the Center for Sex Research at California State University in Northridge.
His presentation resulted in a storm of controversy and ultimately a state legislative investigation that charged the conference with encouraging pedophilia. A witness before the legislative committee accused Dr. Bullough of being a self-confessed pedophile.
This had happened before to Dr. Bullough believes such accusations arise from a deliberate policy to arouse public opinion against sex research. He postulates that childhood is pictured as one where terrible dangers lurk everywhere and guilty parents respond hysterically to the most frightful of all hot-button issues, child sexual abuse.
He believes any research even suggesting child sexual abuse isn't inevitably traumatic is too threatening to tolerate. Theo Sandfort is a sex researcher in the Netherlands who has written extensively about man-boy relationships in the Netherlands Sandfort, He was able, with the permission of the adult partners, to contact 25 boys.
At that time, the climate in the Netherlands was very different than it was in the United States regarding adult-child sex. For example, in 7 out of 25 cases Sandfort studied, the boy's parents were aware of the relationship and accepted it.
Police generally didn't prosecute when the boy was at least 12 years old. Sandfort's research was harshly criticized and one seldom encounters it in the literature on the effects of child sexual abuse.
Bauserman comments on the severe and unfair critiques of Sandfort's research, and concludes the moral condemnation of such relationships means critics are unable to evaluate his research objectively: The Rind et al.
Affair InBruce Rind, Philip Tromovitch, and Robert Bauserman published a meta-analysis of the effects of child sexual abuse using college samples in the Psychological Bulletin. Contradicting the popular view that child sexual abuse inevitably causes severe and long-lasting psychological damage, the authors reported that the relationship between a self-reported history of child sexual abuse and psychopathology was quite weak.
They concluded subjects who had been sexually abused were nearly as well-adjusted as those who were not. The authors were careful to emphasize that lack of harm doesn't mean the adult-child sexual contact is morally permissible: There was no response to the article for several months. Laura Schlessinger, whose " Dr.
Laura " radio show attracts millions of listeners. She called it "junk science at its worst" and claimed the point of the article was to normalize pedophilia. She even implied that two of the authors traveled over the world to promote adult-child sex Lilienfeld, b, p.
Schlessinger then urged Congress to take formal action against the APA.The article cited a Consumer Reports story from last year, stating that more than million American children under the age of 13 joined Facebook (you have to be 13 to officially open an account).
RUNNING HEADER: A CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO PORNOGRAPHY 1 A Christian Approach to Pornography Competing Views on Biblical, Health, Psychological, and Societal Impacts Devin C. Streeter Contemporary Health Issues Liberty University 2 September A CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO PORNOGRAPHY 2 Abstract Pornography has been a point of much controversy in the Christian .
From an overweight child huffing down a country road to a contrite Tiger Woods at the height of his scandal, Nike ads have always pushed boundaries. According to the U.S. Department of Justice(4) there is an average of , sexual assault victims over the age of 12 each year in American society.
The majority of these victims are female and sadly many cases go unreported for various reasons. Sep 25, · In the cost-benefit analysis of casino positives and negatives that accrue to the community affected, social impacts should be a critical determinant.
In many places, sleaze and filth are. by Nathalie Louge October Continued on page 2 Although the Internet has consistent positive impacts on modern society, it has also caused various societal concerns about privacy, security, pornography, Internet crime, and could pose negative impacts on adolescent development.