Royal Polymers, a plastics plant located near Bayer, released an estimated kilograms of vinyl chloride into the St. As word of the spill spread Wednesday thousands of Wallaceburg residents were ordered to stop drinking tap water. Royal Polymers issued a news release Wednesday stating the spills occurred sometime between 4: Thursday and 5 p.
Badillo Corona Some of the characteristics that make the C. Taking advantage of these characteristics in C. Examples of each of these will be given below.
Antibodies and Immunotoxins Given their complexity, antibodies have been difficult to produce in prokaryotic systems and thus have to be produced in eukaryotic systems such as mammalian cell cultures, making the final product expensive and sometimes scarce .
If antibodies could be efficiently produced in a photosynthetic organism such as in C. Antibodies have been successfully expressed in the chloroplast of C. In the first case, a monoclonal antibody directed against a glycoprotein of the herpes simplex virus D HSV8 was expressed from a large single chain lsc coding sequence, which consisted on the entire IgA heavy chain fragment fused to the variable region of the light chain fragment by a flexible linker peptide.
HSV8-lsc protein accumulated to approximately 0. Moreover, the HSV8-lsc antibody correctly assembled as a dimer and was capable of binding its target antigen, the herpes simplex viral coat protein .
In the second case, a monoclonal antibody directed against protein PA from Bacillus anthracis assembled into a functional tetrameric structure consisting of 2 heavy-chain and 2 light-chain subunits, capable of binding the PA83 antigen from the pathogen in vitro.
Affinity was determined in parallel for the chloroplast produced antibody and an antibody expressed in a mammalian system and was shown to be similar in function.
A comparison with antibody 83K7C, expressed in CHO cells, which had been demonstrated to provide protection from anthrax toxicity, in both cell-based assays and animal models , showed that, apart from the lack of glycosylation inherent to chloroplaststhe chloroplast-produced antibody had the same PA83 binding properties than the antibody produced in the mammalian cell-line.
Two remarkable features that were demonstrated for these strains are: These findings established that algal chloroplasts have the capacity to synthesize fairly complex molecules in a soluble and active form. Other types of molecules that are similar in structure and size to antibodies, but that are different in terms of function are immunotoxins.
Immunotoxins are antibodies linked to a toxin of a protein nature.
These chimeric molecules can be used in cancer treatment because they are highly specific, a characteristic conferred by the antibody they contain, and can be directed to one particular cell-type where the toxin binds to a target protein and kills the eukaryotic cell.
Given their nature, immunotoxins are difficult to produce in eukaryotic systems. However, because of the prokaryotic origin of the chloroplast, they have been produced in the chloroplast of C. As has been mentioned before, the chloroplast serves as the ideal compartment for the production of complex molecules, such as antibodies but at the same time it serves as a confined compartment where the toxin, or the immunotoxins for this matter, is sequestered from the cytosol, preventing it from killing the eukaryotic cell.
Two immunotoxins have been shown to accumulate in the chloroplast of C. A single chain antibody recognizing the CD22 surface receptor from B-cells was fused either to domain II or III of Exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa [37,58] or to the ribosome inactivating protein, gelonin, from Gelonium multiflorm [37,59].
In both cases it was demonstrated that the immunotoxins were capable of specifically binding to B-cells in vitro but not to Jurkat cells, which lack the CD22 receptor. In the case of the immunotoxin Exotoxin A, the life-span of mice implanted with a human Bcell tumour, was extended.
Antigens In humans and animals, vaccination is the most effective method of inducing resistance to a certain pathogen. Traditional vaccines are commonly produced from an attenuated or killed form of the pathogenic organism.
An alternative approach is to produce a recombinant antigenic protein from the pathogen, and to use it to elicit an immune response through vaccination subunit vaccination. Subunit vaccination is currently used for the prevention of diseases like hepatitis A and B .
As algae contain the protein folding machinery that bacteria and other prokaryotes lack, they can be used to produce complex proteins that cannot be easily produced at large scale in bacterial cultures, without costly denaturation and refolding steps.
Algae are also ideal for producing antigens, which exhibit little or no glycosylation, such as those from the parasite Plasmodium falciparum . The first subunit viral vaccine produced in the chloroplast of C. FMD in livestock can be prevented by subunit vaccination. Badillo Corona that can bind to intestinal epithelial surfaces via GM1 ganglioside receptors.
The CtxB-VP1 fusion protein produced in the chloroplast retained both GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and antigenicity.
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Another viral protein, the classical swine fever virus E2 structural protein, was expressed in the chloroplast of C. Similarly, along with a list of other recombinant proteins, the white spot syndrome virus protein 28 VP28 was expressed in the chloroplast and was reported to accumulate to a striking Manu Script.
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