Renaissance Humanism Humanism is the term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy and intellectual and literary currents of the period from to The return to favor of the pagan classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression. Zeal for the classics was a result as well as a cause of the growing secular view of life.
Writers, politicians, scholars and artists engaged in the movement, which was developed in Essays in philosophy of humanism to the scholastic conventions at the time. The conventions of education emphasized a utilitarian, practical, pre-professional and scientific studies for Job reparation, by men.
Humanists reacted against this utilitarian approach seeking to create a citizenry, including women, able to speak and write with eloquence and thus able to engage the civic life of their communities. The humanistic approach was accomplished through the study of humanities including grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
Humanism aimed to revive the cultural and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. The movement was largely founded on the ideals of Italian scholar and poet, Francesco Petard.
These ideals centered on humanists potential for achievement.
The theory of Humanism revolves around several main principles that focus on the role of humans in their environment. For example, humanists believe there is no external divine intervention between humans and the physical environment in which they operate and that human beings are not subject to God or any divine agency.
Beliefs must be founded on reason and the human experience and all human beings are entitled to inalienable human rights. Special privileges should not be given to any group on the basis of religious beliefs and finally, humanists believed that there was no evidence that life after death exists and humans should focus on living this life While humanism initially began as a predominantly literary and political movement, its influence quickly spread to the general culture of the time, reintroducing classical Greek and Roman art forms.
Humanists considered the ancient world to be pinnacle of the human achievement and thought its accomplishments should serve as the model for contemporary Europe. Humanism affected the artistic community and how artists were perceived.
While medieval society viewed artists as servants and craftspeople, Renaissance artists were trained intellectuals, and their art reflected this newfound perspective. Art in the middle ages was usually anonymous, where the artist created the artworks to glorify God.
However in the Renaissance, artists became famous for their work.
Patronage of the arts became an important activity and commissions were no longer for religious themes, but were for secular themes as well. In painting, the treatment of the elements of perspective, geometry and light became f particular importance. The use of oil paint had its beginnings in the early part of the 16th century and its use continued to be explored extensively throughout the coming High Renaissance of the 16th century.
Humanism in art celebrates individuals of the middle class; there were thousands of portraits of merchants, scholars, musicians, wives, and children during the Renaissance. Humanism considers that people can solve difficulties on their own, without the help of God.
Finally, humanism affected the art world through the naturalistic way of portraying the human body using full anatomical accuracy, and frequently nude characters.
Many of the works of art in that time celebrate the beauty of the human form. This was in stark contrast to the way that the Medieval artist abstracted the human body, in some cases making it seem as if their portraits and statues of saints have no body beneath their robes.
I have chosen three artworks to demonstrate how humanist theory is reflected in renaissance art: The method in which the statue was made represents the return to the classical art periods through the technique of lost-wax casting, using bronze, copper and tin.
Let was most likely commissioned by the Medici family, and was placed in their palace courtyard, in Florence. It is now found in the Muses Nationalize del Barbells, Florence. The statue depicts the biblical story of David as he stands with his foot, on he severed head of Goliath.
He is only wearing a pair of boots, and a hat toped with laurel, whilst holding Goliath sword in one hand and the rock he used to kill him in the other.
The hat or helmet on the statue is similar to one worn by the Greek and Roman messengers of the gods, Hermes, and typifies the humanist interest in classical mythology. The humanism is also reflected through the nudity of the statue and the emotional expressions and stance of the body.
The relaxed contrasts and placement of the left hand on his hip suggest confidence, pride and movement. The expression is one of thoughtfulness, on a quiet and contemplative face, with downcast eyes. The face reflects the humanist value of contemplation and internal thought, instead of exterior boasting that one would expect from other religious artwork of the time.
The stance and artistic media had not been used for years and artists in the Middle Ages focused on religious icons, God and the soul and rarely used nudity or realism. The unman body was seen as a path to corruption in the middle ages, and therefore was not used in artwork.
This statue is the first freestanding nude figure since the ancient Greek and roman classical period. From a humanistic perspective, the sensuality of the figure makes the observer forget it is a biblical story.
Because he is free standing he is more human and realistic and gives the impression to being able to move freely, as compared to the architectural and grouped statues of the Middle Ages and Byzantine.
The return to nudity embraces the Greek and Roman love and respect for the human form. In contrast, the gruesome head of Goliath seems to conflict with the sensuality, eroticism and beauty of David. In conclusion, Denotable uses the humanist theory in his statue of David through the contrasts, the sensual and erotic nakedness, the use of bronze casting and the and Roman Classical period, which is a key focus of the humanist movement during the Renaissance.
The Birth of Venus by Sandra Poetical, was painted between and Humanism and Democratic Criticism (Columbia Themes in Philosophy) [Edward Said, Akeel Bilgrami] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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Western philosophy - Renaissance philosophy: The philosophy of a period arises as a response to social need, and the development of philosophy in the history of Western civilization since the Renaissance has, thus, reflected the process in which creative philosophers have responded to the unique challenges of each stage in the development of Western culture itself.
Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism 06 October By James A. Montanye. Personhood and the Scope of Moral Duty. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism 06 October By Dustin Arand.
Fairness, Dignity, and Beauty in Sport. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism 26 April By . Essays; Renaissance Humanism; Renaissance Humanism. art, and philosophy than in theology. To say the least, renaissance humanism was a “revolution in thinking and feeling which left no part of society, not even the highest levels of Christianity, untouched” (Cline).
Humanist philosophy caused an increase in emphasis on education and. Humanism Research paper Humanism is the philosophical idea that emphasizes the dignity and worth of the individual.
The term humanism is most often used to describe a literary and cultural movement that spread through Florence, Venice, Pisa, Milan, Rome and other Italian cities in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.